During the flight of Spacelab 1 the crew performed a number of experiments to explore changes in vestibular function and visual-vestibular interactions on exposure to microgravity. Measurements were made on the threshold for detection of linear oscillation, vestibulo-ocular reflexes elicited by angular and linear movements, oculomotor and posture responses to optokinetic stimulations, and responses to caloric stimulation. Tests were also conducted on the ground, during the 4 months before and on days 1 to 6 after flight. The most significant result was that caloric mystagmus of the same direction as on the earth could also be evoked in the weightless environment.