Antibodies in sera from patients with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma or from healthy carriers of type I human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) recognize an antigen of approximately 42 kilodaltons (p42) in cell lines infected with HTLV-I. Radiolabel sequence analysis of cyanogen bromide fragments of p42 led to the conclusion that this antigen is encoded in part by LOR, a conserved portion of the "X" region that is flanked by the envelope gene and the 3' long terminal repeat of HTLV-I. It is possible that this novel product mediates the unique transformation properties of the HTLV family.