Pavoninins: Shark-Repelling Ichthyotoxins from the Defense Secretion of the Pacific Sole

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Science  09 Nov 1984:
Vol. 226, Issue 4675, pp. 703-705
DOI: 10.1126/science.226.4675.703

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A series of ichthyotoxic and hemolytic steroid aminoglycosides, pavoninins-1, to -6, has been isolated from the defense secretion of the sole Pardachirus pavoninus, and their respective chemical structures have been established by spectroscopic studies and chemical conversions. The pavoninins exert repellent activity against sharks and are considered to be the factors responsible for the predator-repelling property of the sole.