Administration of a monoclonal antibody (GK1.5) that recognizes the L3T4 marker present on helper T cells prevented the development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice. Furthermore, treatment with GK1.5 reversed EAE when the antibody was given to paralyzed animals. In vivo injection of GK1.5 selectively reduced the number of L3T4+ cells in the spleen and the lymph nodes. These results suggest that manipulation of the human equivalent of the murine L3T4+ T-cell subset with monoclonal antibodies may provide effective therapy for certain autoimmune diseases.