Eleven mangabey monkeys inoculated with Mycobacterium leprae developed lepromatous-type leprosy. Nine of the mangabeys were inoculated with M. leprae isolated from a mangabey with naturally acquired lepromatous leprosy. Immune function was depressed in some of these animals after dissemination of the disease. Two mangabeys developed lepromatous leprosy after inoculation with human M. leprae passaged in an armadillo. Three rhesus and three African green monkeys inoculated with mangabey-derived M. leprae also developed lepromatous leprosy. Mangabeys may be the first reported nonhuman primate model for the study of leprosy. Rhesus and African green monkeys may also prove to be reproducibly susceptible to the disease.