Fifty of 75 serum samples collected in the West Nile district of Uganda between August 1972 and July 1973 contained antibodies reactive with human T-cell leukemia (lymphotropic) virus type 3 (HTLV-III; mean titer, 601), while 12 of 75 samples were positive in a similar test for HTLV type 1 (HTLV-1) antibodies (mean titer, 236). The samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and positive results were confirmed by a newly developed unlabeled antibody-peroxidase procedure with enhanced sensitivity for detection of antibody binding to immunoblots of HTLV-III antigen, demonstrating antibodies to proteins with molecular weights of 24,000, 41,000, and 76,000 in nearly all positive samples. Analysis of titration data indicated enhanced titers of antibody against HTLV-III and HTLV-I when coinfection occurred. The high prevalence and relatively low titers [compared to serum from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)] of antibodies recognizing HTLV-III proteins in sera from this population at a time that may predate or coincide with the appearance or spread of the AIDS agent (HTLV-III) suggest that the virus detected may have been a predecessor of HTLV-III or is HTLV-III itself but existing in a population acclimated to its presence. It further suggests an African origin of HTLV-III.