A human complementary DNA clone specific for the alpha-chain of the T-cell receptor and a panel of rodent X human somatic cell hybrids were used to map the alpha-chain gene to human chromosome 14 in a region proximal to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. Analysis by means of in situ hybridization of human metaphase chromosomes served to further localize the alpha-chain gene to region 14q11q12, which is consistently involved in translocations and inversions detectable in human T-cell leukemias and lymphomas. Thus, the locus for the alpha-chain T-cell receptor may participate in oncogene activation in T-cell tumors.