A multiplicity of cytochromes P-450 is responsible for the detoxification and activation of xenobiotics such as drugs and carcinogens. Individual differences in sensitivity to these agents may reside in the cytochrome P-450 phenotype. A monoclonal antibody-directed radioimmunoassay was developed that detects epitope-specific cytochromes P-450 in human placentas and peripheral lymphocytes. Placentas from women who smoked cigarettes contained greater amounts of cytochrome P-450 with the monoclonal antibody-specific epitope than placentas from nonsmokers. The amount of this cytochrome P-450 in human peripheral lymphocytes increased after treatment of the mitogenized lymphocytes with the cytochrome P-450 inducer benz[a]anthracene.