Mutagenesis was studied in cultured F9 embryonal carcinoma cells infected with a variant of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Proviral insertion induced the inactivation of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase locus, and the virus was used to isolate the mutated genes rapidly. Mutagenesis by these methods may be useful for the genetic dissection of the various mammalian cell phenotypes.