Regeneration of fish optic nerve (representing regenerative central nervous system) was accompanied by increased activity of regeneration-triggering factors produced by nonneuronal cells. A graft of regenerating fish optic nerve, or a "wrap-around" implant containing medium conditioned by it, induced a response associated with regeneration in injured optic nerves of adult rabbits (representing a nonregenerative central nervous system). This response was manifested by an increase of general protein synthesis and of selective polypeptides in the retinas and by the ability of the retina to sprout in culture.