Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence Programming

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Science  28 Feb 1986:
Vol. 231, Issue 4741, pp. 951-957
DOI: 10.1126/science.231.4741.951


Programs are judged not only by whether they faithfully carry out the intended processing but also by whether they are understandable and easily changed. Programming systems for artificial intelligence applications use specialized languages, environments, and knowledge-based tools to reduce the complexity of the programming task. Language styles based on procedures, objects, logic, rules, and constraints reflect different models for organizing programs and facilitate program evolution and understandability. To make programming easier, multiple styles can be integrated as sublanguages in a programming environment. Programming environments provide tools that analyze programs and create informative displays of their structure. Programs can be modified by direct interaction with these displays. These tools and languages are helping computer scientists to regain a sense of control over systems that have become increasingly complex.