By in situ chromosomal hybridization, the GM-CSF and FMS genes were localized to human chromosome 5 at bands q23 to q31, and at band 5q33, respectively. These genes encode proteins involved in the regulation of hematopoiesis, and are located within a chromosome region frequently deleted in patients with neoplastic myeloid disorders. Both genes were deleted in the 5q-chromosome from bone marrow cells of two patients with refractory anemia and a del(5)(q15q33.3). The GM-CSF gene alone was deleted in a third patient with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) who has a smaller deletion, del(5)(q22q33.1). Leukemia cells from a fourth patient who has ANLL and does not have a del(5q), but who has a rearranged chromosome 5 that is missing bands q31.3 to q33.1 [ins(21;5)(q22;q31.3q33.1)] were used to sublocalize these genes; both genes were present on the rearranged chromosome 5. Thus, the deletion of one or both of these genes may be important in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndromes or of ANLL.