Neuroleukin is a lymphokine product of lectin-stimulated T cells that induces immunoglobulin secretion by cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Neuroleukin acts early in the in vitro response that leads to formation of antibody-secreting cells, but continued production of immunoglobulin by differentiated antibody-secreting cells is neuroleukin-independent. Although the factor is not directly mitogenic, cellular proliferation is a late component of the response to neuroleukin. Neuroleukin does not have B-cell growth factor (BCGF) or B-cell differentiation factor (BCDF) activity in defined assays. Neuroleukin-evoked induction of immunoglobulin secretion is both monocyte- and T-cell-dependent.