Observations in Particle Physics from Two Neutrinos to the Standard Model

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Science  12 May 1989:
Vol. 244, Issue 4905, pp. 664-672
DOI: 10.1126/science.244.4905.664


The two-neutrino experiment established a relationship between particles, muon and muon neutrino, electron and electron neutrino, which evolved into the standard model of particle physics. The theme of this article is a personal one, which reviews a series of experiments at the Columbia Synchrocyclotron, the Brookhaven Cosmotron, the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, the CERN intersecting storage rings, the Fermilab 400-gigavolt proton synchrotron, and the Cornell electron storage rings, all of which were important in the evolution of the standard model. In some cases the fermion particles were discovered (the second neutrino vµ, b quark); in other cases fields of research were opened (muon spin resonance, neutral kaons and charge-parity violation, dimuons and the Drell-Yan process), which led to further development of the standard model. Finally, the current ignorance about the properties of now three neutrinos is reviewed.

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