Articles

The Chemistry of Solid-State Electronics

Science  20 Oct 1989:
Vol. 246, Issue 4928, pp. 347-351
DOI: 10.1126/science.246.4928.347

Abstract

Since the original theoretical insights of Bardeen and Shockley about 40 years ago, the progress of solid-state electronics has been paced by the ability to control chemical bonding structures, particularly at surfaces and interfaces. The functioning of solid-state devices depends on being able to produce interfacial structures with a minimum number of defective chemical bonds. A series of chemical discoveries and insights, on germanium (Ge) and silicon (Si) surfaces and gallium arsenide-aluminum arsenide (GaAs-AlAs) interfaces, has brought the electronics revolution to its present state of development. In most cases, the technological consequences of these accidental discoveries could not be accurately foreseen. With that caution, the technological prognosis for some current research is also reviewed.

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