Thermomolecular Pressure in Surface Melting: Motivation for Frost Heave

Science  22 Dec 1989:
Vol. 246, Issue 4937, pp. 1591-1593
DOI: 10.1126/science.246.4937.1591


A thermomolecular pressure is associated with surface melting, and it can drive mass flow along an interface under a lateral temperature gradient. The pressure is a universal thermodynamic function in the limit of thick films. It may be responsible for frost heave in frozen ground.