Cosmid clones containing human DNA inserts have been mapped on chromosome 11 by fluorescence in situ hybridization under conditions that suppress signal from repetitive DNA sequences. Thirteen known genes, one chromosome 11-specific DNA repeat, and 36 random clones were analyzed. High-resolution mapping was facilitated by using digital imaging microscopy and by analyzing extended (prometaphase) chromosomes. The map coordinates established by in situ hybridization showed a one to one correspondence with those determined by Southern (DNA) blot analysis of hybrid cell lines containing fragments of chromosome 11. Furthermore, by hybridizing three or more cosmids simultaneously, gene order on the chromosome could be established unequivocally. These results demonstrate the feasibility of rapidly producing high-resolution maps of human chromosomes by in situ hybridization.