The evolution of sex chromosomes

Science  01 Mar 1991:
Vol. 251, Issue 4997, pp. 1030-1033
DOI: 10.1126/science.1998119


Structurally distinct sex chromosomes (X and Y) are the most familiar mode of genetic sex determination and have evolved independently in many different taxa. The evolutionary paths by which their characteristic properties may have evolved are reviewed. These properties include the failure of X and Y to recombine through much or all of their length, the genetic inertness of much of the Y chromosome, dosage compensation of the activity of X chromosomal loci, and the accumulation of repeated DNA sequences on the Y chromosome.

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