Galileo Ultraviolet Spectrometer Experiment: Initial Venus and Interplanetary Cruise Results

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Science  27 Sep 1991:
Vol. 253, Issue 5027, pp. 1548-1550
DOI: 10.1126/science.253.5027.1548


The Galileo Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer obtained a spectrum of Venus atmospheric emissions in the 55.0- to 125.0-nanometer (nm) wavelength region. Emissions of helium (58.4 nm), ionized atomic oxygen (83.4 nm), and atomic hydrogen (121.6 nm), as well as a blended spectral feature of atomic hydrogen (Lyman-β) and atomic oxygen (102.5 nm), were observed at 3.5-nm resolution. During the Galileo spacecraft cruise from Venus to Earth, Lyman-α emission from solar system atomic hydrogen (121.6 nm) was measured. The dominant source of the Lyman-α emission is atomic hydrogen from the interstellar medium. A model of Galileo observations at solar maximum indicates a decrease in the solar Lyman-α flux near the solar poles. A strong day-to-day variation also occurs with the 27-day periodicity of the rotation of the sun