High-Resolution Imaging by Fourier Transform X-ray Holography

Science  15 May 1992:
Vol. 256, Issue 5059, pp. 1009-1012
DOI: 10.1126/science.256.5059.1009


Fourier transform x-ray holography has been used to image gold test objects with submicrometer structure, resolving features as small as 60 nanometers. The hologram-recording instrument uses coherent 3.4-nanometer radiation from the soft x-ray undulator beamline X1A at the National Synchrotron Light Source. The specimen to be imaged is placed near the first-order focal spot produced by a Fresnel zone plate; the other orders, chiefly the zeroth, illuminate the specimen. The wave scattered by the specimen interferes with the spherical reference wave from the focal spot, forming a hologram with fringes of low spatial frequency. The hologram is recorded in digital form by a charge-coupled device camera, and the specimen image is obtained by numerical reconstruction.