After observations that Macaca nemestrina were exceptionally susceptible to simian immunodeficiency virus and human immunodeficiency virus type-2 (HIV-2), studies of HIV-1 replication were initiated. Several strains of HIV-1, including a recent patient isolate, replicated in vitro in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in CD4-positive M. nemestrina lymphocytes in a CD4-dependent fashion. Eight animals were subsequently inoculated with either cell-associated or cell-free suspensions of HIV-1. All animals had HIV-1 isolated by cocultivation, had HIV-1 DNA in their PBMCs as shown by polymerase chain reaction, and experienced sustained seroconversion to a broad spectrum of HIV-1 proteins. Macaca nemestrina is an animal model of HIV-1 infections that provides opportunities for evaluating the pathogenesis of acute HIV-1 replication and candidate vaccines and therapies.