Transfer of Biologically Derived Nanometer-Scale Patterns to Smooth Substrates

Science  31 Jul 1992:
Vol. 257, Issue 5070, pp. 642-644
DOI: 10.1126/science.257.5070.642


Atomic force microscopy has been used to measure the surface profile of a periodic array of 10-nanometer (nm)-diameter holes fabricated by fast-atom beam milling of a smooth graphite surface in which a 3.5-nm-thick titanium oxide screen was used as a mask. The nanostructured titanium oxide mask was itself derived from a protein crystal template. Pattern transfer from the biological crystal to the metal oxide film and finally to the graphite substrate was accomplished entirely by parallel processing.