Volcanic Activity on lo at the Time of the Ulysses Encounter

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Science  11 Sep 1992:
Vol. 257, Issue 5076, pp. 1507-1510
DOI: 10.1126/science.257.5076.1507


The population of heavy ions in lo's torus is ultimately derived from lo volcanism. Groundbased infrared observations of lo between October 1991 and March 1992, contemporaneous with the 8 February 1992 Ulysses observations of the lo torus, show that volcanic thermal emission was at the low end of the normal range at all lo longitudes during this period. In particular, the dominant hot spot Loki was quiescent. Resolved images show that there were at least four hot spots on lo's Jupiter-facing hemisphere, including Loki and a long-lived spot on the leading hemisphere (Kanehekili), of comparable 3.5-micrometer brightness but higher temperature.