Comparative genomic hybridization produces a map of DNA sequence copy number as a function of chromosomal location throughout the entire genome. Differentially labeled test DNA and normal reference DNA are hybridized simultaneously to normal chromosome spreads. The hybridization is detected with two different fluorochromes. Regions of gain or loss of DNA sequences, such as deletions, duplications, or amplifications, are seen as changes in the ratio of the intensities of the two fluorochromes along the target chromosomes. Analysis of tumor cell lines and primary bladder tumors identified 16 different regions of amplification, many in loci not previously known to be amplified.