A Liquid-Solution-Phase Synthesis of Crystalline Silicon

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Science  13 Nov 1992:
Vol. 258, Issue 5085, pp. 1131-1133
DOI: 10.1126/science.258.5085.1131


A liquid-solution-phase technique for preparing submicrometer-sized silicon single crystals is presented. The synthesis is based on the reduction of SiCl4 and RSiCl3 (R = H, octyl) by sodium metal in a nonpolar organic solvent at high temperatures (385°C) and high pressures (> 100 atmospheres). For R = H, the synthesis produces hexagonal-shaped silicon single crystals ranging from 5 to 3000 nanometers in size. For R = octyl, the synthesis also produces hexagonal-shaped silicon single crystals; however, the size range is controlled to 5.5 ± 2.5 nanometers.