Regulation of the differentiation of teratocarcinoma cells into primitive endoderm by G alpha i2

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Science  20 Nov 1992:
Vol. 258, Issue 5086, pp. 1373-1375
DOI: 10.1126/science.1455234


The amount of the heterotrimeric G protein subunit G alpha i2 decreases after the induction of F9 teratocarcinoma cells to become primitive endoderm in the presence of retinoic acid (RA). The reduction of the G alpha i2 protein in F9 cells by antisense RNA expression was associated with (i) loss of receptor-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase; (ii) decreased cell doubling time; (iii) induction of a primitive, endoderm-like phenotype in the absence of RA; and (iv) production of the differentiation marker tissue-type plasminogen activator. Expression of a constitutively active, mutant G alpha i2 blocked RA-induced differentiation. These data suggest the involvement of G alpha i2 in the control of stem cell differentiation and provide insight into the involvement of G proteins in growth regulation.