Cellular proteins associated with immunodeficiency viruses were identified by determination of the amino acid sequence of the proteins and peptides present in sucrose density gradient-purified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). beta 2 microglobulin (beta 2m) and the alpha and beta chains of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) DR were present in virus preparations at one-fifth the concentration of Gag on a molar basis. Antisera to HLA DR, beta 2 m, as well as HLA class I precipitated intact viral particles, suggesting that these cellular proteins were physically associated with the surface of the virus. Antisera to class I, beta 2m, and HLA DR also inhibited infection of cultured cells by both HIV-1 and SIV. The specific, selective association of these cellular proteins in a physiologically relevant manner has major implications for our understanding of the infection process and the pathogenesis of immunodeficiency viruses and should be considered in the design of vaccines.