Interferon inhibits expression of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) through unknown mechanisms. A gene inducible by interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was isolated by screening of a human complementary DNA library for proteins binding to the Rev-responsive element (RRE) of HIV-1. The product of this gene, RBP9-27, was shown to bind RNA in vitro and to inhibit HIV-1 expression after transfection into human cells. RBP9-27 primarily inhibited Rev-dependent posttranscriptional steps of viral gene expression. Thus, RBP9-27 is a cellular factor that antagonizes Rev function. These results suggest an interferon-induced antiviral mechanism operating through the induction of RNA binding proteins such as RBP9-27. Elucidation of RBP9-27 function may lead to a better understanding of the mechanism of interferon action during HIV-1 infection.