Bipolar Spin Switch

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Science  16 Apr 1993:
Vol. 260, Issue 5106, pp. 320-323
DOI: 10.1126/science.260.5106.320


A thin ferromagnetic film can be used to polarize the spin axes of the electrons carrying an electric current in a manner loosely analogous with a light polarizer. When such a film is fabricated on a gold film, a nonequilibrium population of spin-polarized electrons is built up in the gold causing a "spin bottleneck" effect. The addition of a second ferromagnetic film results in a device whose output voltage depends on the orientation of the spins.