Although protection in animal models against intravenous challenges with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) has been reported, no previous vaccines have protected against a heterosexual route of infection. In this study, five of six macaques were protected against vaginal challenge when immunized with formalin-treated SIV in biodegradable microspheres by the intramuscular plus oral or plus intratracheal route. Oral immunization alone did not protect. After a second vaginal challenge, three of four intramuscularly primed and mucosally boosted macaques remained protected. The data suggest that protection against human immunodeficiency virus vaginal transmission could be provided by microsphere-based booster vaccines when used to immunize women who are systemically primed.