The Spermann organizer induces neural tissue from dorsal ectoderm and dorsalizes lateral and ventral mesoderm in Xenopus. The secreted factor noggin, which is expressed in the organizer, can mimic the dorsalizing signal of the organizer. Data are presented showing that noggin directly induces neural tissue, that it induces neural tissue in the absence of dorsal mesoderm, and that it acts at the appropriate stage to be an endogenous neural inducing signal. Noggin induces cement glands and anterior brain markers, but not hindbrain or spinal cord markers. Thus, noggin has the expression pattern and activity expected of an endogenous neural inducer.

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