The cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) regulates progression through the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The activity of CDK4 is controlled by the opposing effects of the D-type cyclin, an activating subunit, and p16INK4, an inhibitory subunit. Ectopic expression of p16INK4 blocked entry into S phase of the cell cycle induced by oncogenic Ha-Ras, and this block was relieved by coexpression of a catalytically inactive CDK4 mutant. Expression of p16INK4 suppressed cellular transformation of primary rat embryo fibroblasts by oncogenic Ha-Ras and Myc, but not by Ha-Ras and E1a. Together, these observations provide direct evidence that p16INK4 can inhibit cell growth.