Numbers and ratios of visual pigment genes for normal red-green color vision

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Science  17 Feb 1995:
Vol. 267, Issue 5200, pp. 1013-1016
DOI: 10.1126/science.7863325


Red-green color vision is based on middle-wavelength- and long-wavelength-sensitive visual pigments encoded by an array of genes on the X chromosome. The numbers and ratios of genes in this cluster were reexamined in men with normal color vision by means of newly refined methods. These methods revealed that many men had more pigment genes on the X chromosome than had previously been suggested and that many had more than one long-wave pigment gene. These discoveries challenge accepted ideas that are the foundation for theories of normal and anomalous color vision.