Dating and context of three middle stone age sites with bone points in the Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire

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Science  28 Apr 1995:
Vol. 268, Issue 5210, pp. 548-553
DOI: 10.1126/science.7725099


The extent to which the earliest anatomically modern humans in Africa exhibited behavioral and cognitive traits typical of Homo sapiens sapiens is controversial. In eastern Zaire, archaeological sites with bone points have yielded dates older than 89(-15)+22 thousand years ago by several techniques. These include electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, uranium series, and amino acid racemization. Faunal and stratigraphic data are consistent with this age.