Mechanisms for Lithium Insertion in Carbonaceous Materials

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Science  27 Oct 1995:
Vol. 270, Issue 5236, pp. 590-593
DOI: 10.1126/science.270.5236.590


Lithium can be inserted reversibly within most carbonaceous materials. The physical mechanism for this insertion depends on the carbon type. Lithium intercalates in layered carbons such as graphite, and it adsorbs on the surfaces of single carbon layers in nongraphitizable hard carbons. Lithium also appears to reversibly bind near hydrogen atoms in carbonaceous materials containing substantial hydrogen, which are made by heating organic precursors to temperatures near 700°C. Each of these three classes of materials appears suitable for use in advanced lithium batteries.