Gas-Phase Multiply Charged Anions

Science  17 Nov 1995:
Vol. 270, Issue 5239, pp. 1160-1166
DOI: 10.1126/science.270.5239.1160


Singly charged negative ions in the gas phase have attracted considerable experimental and theoretical attention over the past decades. However, the existence of free doubly or multiply charged negative ions, in particular those of small systems, has remained a curiosity and a matter of some controversy. Recent experimental and quantum mechanical studies show that multiply charged negative ions of small molecules and clusters can exist as isolated entities.