Reports

Solution-Liquid-Solid Growth of Crystalline III-V Semiconductors: An Analogy to Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth

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Science  15 Dec 1995:
Vol. 270, Issue 5243, pp. 1791-1794
DOI: 10.1126/science.270.5243.1791

Abstract

Until now, micrometer-scale or larger crystals of the III-V semiconductors have not been grown at low temperatures for lack of suitable crystallization mechanisms for highly covalent nonmolecular solids. A solution-liquid-solid mechanism for the growth of InP, InAs, and GaAs is described that uses simple, low-temperature (≤203°C), solution-phase reactions. The materials are produced as polycrystalline fibers or near-single-crystal whiskers having widths of 10 to 150 nanometers and lengths of up to several micrometers. This mechanism shows that processes analogous to vapor-liquid-solid growth can operate at low temperatures; similar synthesis routes for other covalent solids may be possible.

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