Evidence suggests that CD8+ T lymphocytes are involved in the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in vivo, either by cytolytic mechanisms or by the release of HIV-suppressive factors (HIV-SF). The chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β were identified as the major HIV-SF produced by CD8+ T cells. Two active proteins purified from the culture supernatant of an immortalized CD8+ T cell clone revealed sequence identity with human RANTES and MIP-1α. RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β were released by both immortalized and primary CD8+ T cells. HIV-SF activity produced by these cells was completely blocked by a combination of neutralizing antibodies against RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β. Recombinant human RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β induced a dose-dependent inhibition of different strains of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). These data may have relevance for the prevention and therapy of AIDS.