Diffusing-Wave Spectroscopy of Dynamics in a Three-Dimensional Granular Flow

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Science  28 Mar 1997:
Vol. 275, Issue 5308, pp. 1920-1922
DOI: 10.1126/science.275.5308.1920

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Diffusing-wave spectroscopy was used to measure the microscopic dynamics of grains in the interior of a three-dimensional flow of sand. The correlation functions show that minutely separated grains fly from collision to collision with large random velocities. On a time scale 103 to 104 times longer than the average time between collisions, the grains displayed slow, collective rearrangements, which, at the long-time limit, produced diffusive dynamics.

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