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Liver regeneration after the loss of hepatic tissue is a fundamental parameter of liver response to injury. Recognized as a phenomenon from mythological times, it is now defined as an orchestrated response induced by specific external stimuli and involving sequential changes in gene expression, growth factor production, and morphologic structure. Many growth factors and cytokines, most notably hepatocyte growth factor, epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-α, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, insulin, and norepinephrine, appear to play important roles in this process. This review attempts to integrate the findings of the last three decades and looks toward clues as to the nature of the causes that trigger this fascinating organ and cellular response.