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Virtually all uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, the primary cause of cystitis, assemble adhesive surface organelles called type 1 pili that contain the FimH adhesin. Sera from animals vaccinated with candidate FimH vaccines inhibited uropathogenicE. coli from binding to human bladder cells in vitro. Immunization with FimH reduced in vivo colonization of the bladder mucosa by more than 99 percent in a murine cystitis model, and immunoglobulin G to FimH was detected in urinary samples from protected mice. Furthermore, passive systemic administration of immune sera to FimH also resulted in reduced bladder colonization by uropathogenicE. coli. This approach may represent a means of preventing recurrent and acute infections of the urogenital mucosa.