Thermodynamics and Kinetics of a Brownian Motor

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Science  09 May 1997:
Vol. 276, Issue 5314, pp. 917-922
DOI: 10.1126/science.276.5314.917

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Nonequilibrium fluctuations, whether generated externally or by a chemical reaction far from equilibrium, can bias the Brownian motion of a particle in an anisotropic medium without thermal gradients, a net force such as gravity, or a macroscopic electric field. Fluctuation-driven transport is one mechanism by which chemical energy can directly drive the motion of particles and macromolecules and may find application in a wide variety of fields, including particle separation and the design of molecular motors and pumps.

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