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Getting a 3D View of Surfaces

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Science  16 Jan 1998:
Vol. 279, Issue 5349, pp. 326-327
DOI: 10.1126/science.279.5349.326

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Summary

For years, researchers worked out how atoms are arranged in a material's surface by diffracting low-energy electrons off it and using the data to refine an approximate picture of the surface structure. Now, a team of surface physicists has found a way to turn these data directly into three-dimensional images of the atomic arrangements--atom-scale holograms.