Special Articles

Progress in the Development of an HIV-1 Vaccine

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Science  19 Jun 1998:
Vol. 280, Issue 5371, pp. 1875-1880
DOI: 10.1126/science.280.5371.1875

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Abstract

Containment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic will require an effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. Accumulating evidence suggests that such a vaccine must efficiently elicit an HIV-1–specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response. Nonhuman primate models will continue to provide an important tool for assessing the extent of protective immunity induced by various immunization strategies. Although replication-competent AIDS viruses attenuated for pathogenicity by selective gene deletions have provided protective immunity in nonhuman primate models, the long-term safety of such vaccines in human populations is suspect. Inactivated virus and subunit vaccines have elicited neither CTLs nor antibodies capable of neutralizing a wide array of patient HIV-1 isolates. Considerable effort is now being focused on evaluating live vector-based vaccine and plasmid DNA vaccine approaches for preventing HIV-1 infection both in animal model and human studies. Our growing understanding of the biology of HIV-1 and immune responses to this virus will continue to suggest improved vaccination approaches for exploration.

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