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Early events in the humoral immune response were visualized in lymph nodes by simultaneous tracking of antigen-specific CD4 T and B cells after immunization. The T cells were initially activated in the T cell areas when the B cells were still randomly dispersed in the B cell–rich follicles. Both populations then migrated to the edges of the follicles and interacted there, resulting in CD154-dependent B cell proliferation and germinal center formation. These results provide visual documentation of cognate T-B cell interactions and localize them to the follicular border.
↵* These authors contributed equally to this work.