Exploiting Chemical Libraries, Structure, and Genomics in the Search for Kinase Inhibitors

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Science  24 Jul 1998:
Vol. 281, Issue 5376, pp. 533-538
DOI: 10.1126/science.281.5376.533

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Selective protein kinase inhibitors were developed on the basis of the unexpected binding mode of 2,6,9-trisubstituted purines to the adenosine triphosphate–binding site of the human cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2). By iterating chemical library synthesis and biological screening, potent inhibitors of the human CDK2–cyclin A kinase complex and of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc28p were identified. The structural basis for the binding affinity and selectivity was determined by analysis of a three-dimensional crystal structure of a CDK2-inhibitor complex. The cellular effects of these compounds were characterized in mammalian cells and yeast. In the latter case the effects were characterized on a genome-wide scale by monitoring changes in messenger RNA levels in treated cells with high-density oligonucleotide probe arrays. Purine libraries could provide useful tools for analyzing a variety of signaling and regulatory pathways and may lead to the development of new therapeutics.

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