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New particle formation in a tropical marine boundary layer setting was characterized during NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission–Tropics A program. It represents the clearest demonstration to date of aerosol nucleation and growth being linked to the natural marine sulfur cycle. This conclusion was based on real-time observations of dimethylsulfide, sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid (gas), hydroxide, ozone, temperature, relative humidity, aerosol size and number distribution, and total aerosol surface area. Classic binary nucleation theory predicts no nucleation under the observed marine boundary layer conditions.