Genesis and Evolution of the 1997-98 El Niño

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Science  12 Feb 1999:
Vol. 283, Issue 5404, pp. 950-954
DOI: 10.1126/science.283.5404.950

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The 1997–98 El Niño was, by some measures, the strongest on record, with major climatic impacts felt around the world. A newly completed tropical Pacific atmosphere-ocean observing system documented this El Niño from its rapid onset to its sudden demise in greater detail than was ever before possible. The unprecedented measurements challenge existing theories about El Niño–related climate swings and suggest why climate forecast models underpredicted the strength of the El Niño before its onset.

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