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An Adiabatic Quantum Electron Pump

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Science  19 Mar 1999:
Vol. 283, Issue 5409, pp. 1905-1908
DOI: 10.1126/science.283.5409.1905

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Abstract

A quantum pumping mechanism that produces dc current or voltage in response to a cyclic deformation of the confining potential in an open quantum dot is reported. The voltage produced at zero current bias is sinusoidal in the phase difference between the two ac voltages deforming the potential and shows random fluctuations in amplitude and direction with small changes in external parameters such as magnetic field. The amplitude of the pumping response increases linearly with the frequency of the deformation. Dependencies of pumping on the strength of the deformations, temperature, and breaking of time-reversal symmetry were also investigated.

  • * To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: cmarcus{at}stanford.edu

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