Are Our Primate Cousins 'Conscious'?

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Science  25 Jun 1999:
Vol. 284, Issue 5423, pp. 2073-2076
DOI: 10.1126/science.284.5423.2073

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With animals brandishing both tools and symbols, consciousness seems to be the last stronghold of human uniqueness. But might primates also have some elements of self-awareness? A new generation of neuroscientists, psychologists, and ethologists hopes to yank such questions out of the realm of philosophy and into empirical science.